New money: Central bank digital currencies
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CitationKaramollaoglu, N. & Tuncay, B. (2019). New money: Central bank digital currencies. in Cryptocurrency in all Aspects (pp.125-137). Peter Lang AG.
Payment systems have been evolving along with technological advancements in the last couple decades. The introduction of different forms of electronic banking, the advance of Internet banking services, and advances in mobile phone and mobile payment technology have reduced the use of physical currency. Additionally, the first mover cryptocurrencies, bitcoin and its various alternatives (e.g., Ether, Litecoin), have been expanding their footprints, despite the volatility of their prices and the issues with their capability. These developments pose both opportunities and threats for Central Banks, particularly in the formulation of monetary policy and regulation of payment systems. Increased adoption of cryptocurrencies for payment transactions could undermine central banks' monetary policy missions as their policy power over the money in circulation would weaken. Weakened monetary policy control on the central bank side would risk financial stability. On the other hand, cryptocurrencies may also have positive impacts on the economy through various channels such as cost and time driven payment market efficiencies, financial inclusion, cashless society, and smaller informal sector. A central bank digital currency (CBDC) may have various characteristics related to its store of value, availability, settlement time, wallet and transaction limits, extent of use, being interest bearing or not and level of anonymity. While each characteristic has its own pros and cons, decisions on the CBDC characteristics need to be made by taking into account the country's circumstances, priorities, and ultimate policy objectives. © Peter Lang GmbH Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften Berlin 2019. All rights reserved.