Adding rapid-acting insulin or GLP-1 receptor agonist to basal insulin: outcomes in a community setting
CitationDalal, M., Xie, L., Baser, O., & DiGenio, A. (January 01, 2015). Adding Rapid-Acting Insulin or GLP-1 Receptor Agonist to Basal Insulin: Outcomes in a Community Setting. Endocrine Practice, 21, 1, 68-76.
Objective: To evaluate real world outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving basal insulin who initiate add-on therapy with a rapid-acting insulin (RAI) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. Methods: Data were extracted retrospectively from a U.S. health claims database. Adults with T2DM on basal insulin who added an RAI (basal + RAI) or GLP-1 receptor agonist (basal + (GLP-1) were included. Propensity score matching (with a 1 up to 3 ratio) was used to control for differences in baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and health resource utilization. Endpoints included prevalence of hypoglycemia, pancreatic events, all cause and diabetes-related resource utilization, and costs at 1-year follow-up. Results: Overall, 6,718 matched patients were included: 5,013 basal + RAI and 1,705 basal + GLP1. Patients in both groups experienced a similar proportion of any hypoglycemic event (P =.4079). Hypoglycemic events leading to hospitalization were higher in the basal + RAI cohort (2.7% vs. 1.8%; P =.0444). The basal + GLP-1 cohort experienced fewer all-cause (13.55% vs. 18.61%; P<.0001) and diabetes-related hospitalizations (11.79% vs. 15.68%; P<.0001). The basal + GLP-1 cohort had lower total all-cause health care costs ($18,413 vs. $20,821; P =.0002) but similar diabetes-related costs ($9,134 vs. $8,985; P<.0001) compared with the basal + RAI cohort. Conclusions: Add-on therapy with a GLP-1 receptor agonist in T2DM patients receiving basal insulin was associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower total all-cause costs compared with add-on therapy using an RAI and could be considered as an alternative to an RAI in certain patients with T2DM who do not achieve effective glycemic control with basal insulin.